Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a mismatch between the severity of acute clinical manifestations and the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion in predicting early stroke outcome and infarct volume.
Methods: One hundred sixty-six patients with a hemispheric ischemic stroke of <12 hours' duration were studied. The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and the volume of DWI lesion were measured on admission and at 72 +/- 12 hours. Infarct volume was measured on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images at day 30. Early neurologic deterioration (END) was defined as an increase of > or =4 points between the two NIHSS evaluations. Thirty-eight patients received IV thrombolysis or abciximab. Clinical-DWI mismatch (CDM) was defined as NIHSS score of > or =8 and ischemic volume on DWI of < or =25 mL on admission. The adjusted influence of CDM on END, DWI lesion enlargement at 72 hours, and infarct growth at day 30 was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and generalized linear models.
Results: CDM was found in 87 patients (52.4%). Patients with CDM had a higher risk of END than patients without CDM because NIHSS < 8 (odds ratio [OR], 9.0; 95% CI,1.9 to 42) or DWI lesion > 25 mL (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.8 to 4.9). CDM was associated with an increase of 46 to 68 mL in the mean volume of DWI lesion enlargement and infarct growth in comparison with non-CDM. All the effects were even greater and significant in patients not treated with reperfusion therapies.
Conclusions: Acute stroke patients with an NIHSS score of > or =8 and DWI volume of < or =25 mL have a higher probability of infarct growth and early neurologic deterioration. The new concept of CDM may identify patients with tissue at risk of infarction for thrombolytic or neuroprotective drugs.