On the basis of acquired thermotolerance and cryotolerance, the optimal heat shock and cold shock temperatures have been determined for Deinococcus radiodurans. A heat shock at 42 degrees C maximized survival at the lethal temperature of 52 degrees C and a cold shock at 20 degrees C maximized survival after repeated freeze-thawing. Enhanced survival from heat shock was found to be strongly dependent on growth stage, with its greatest effect shortly after phase. Increased synthesis of a total of 67 proteins during heat shock and 42 proteins during cold shock were observed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) and autoradiography. Eight of the most highly induced heat shock proteins shown by 2D PAGE were identified by MALDI-MS as Hsp20, GroEL, DnaK, SodA, Csp, Protease I, and two proteins of unknown function.