Greek version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale

Sleep Breath. 2004 Jun;8(2):91-5. doi: 10.1007/s11325-004-0091-6.


Background: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire is widely used for the assessment of daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The aim of this study was to develop a Greek version of ESS, bearing in mind that language is a barrier for application in non-English speaking populations.

Methods: The forward and backward translation method by bilinguals was applied. The Greek version of ESS (ESSgr) was then administered to 130 healthy age-matched controls and 211 patients with SAHS with various levels of severity. Reproducibility of ESSgr and also the sensitivity after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment were tested.

Results: Patients' and controls' ESS score was 11.3 +/- 5.1 and 5.6 +/- 3.2, respectively ( p < 0.001). Total score and individual item score were correlated in both groups. ESSgr score was correlated with body mass index and apnea-hypopnea index ( p < 0.001) but not with age. Reproducibility was tested in 29 subjects, revealing no significant difference. A significant reduction was revealed (14.1 +/- 4.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 3.5; p < 0.001) in 37 patients who were evaluated after CPAP treatment.

Conclusions: Our data validate the ESS for application in Greek-speaking populations. Despite relevant influences of language and cultural background, ESSgr is a valuable tool for clinical management and research.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure / instrumentation
  • Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / diagnosis*
  • Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Language*
  • Middle Aged
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / complications*
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / diagnosis
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / therapy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*