Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine A-loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles for oral administration

J Control Release. 2004 Jul 7;97(3):421-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2004.03.003.


The pH-sensitive cyclosporine A (CyA) nanoparticles were prepared by the solvent displacement method with enteric dissolved polymer of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP; including HP50 and HP55). The CyA nanoparticles were analyzed by HPLC for yield and encapsulation efficiency, dynamic light scattering for particle size and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for morphology. The bioavailability of CyA-HP50 and CyA-HP55 nanoparticle colloids were evaluated in rats, compared with the current available CyA microemulsion (Neoral). The bioavailability of CyA-HP55 nanoparticle colloids with various suspending agents was also investigated. The results obtained demonstrated that the pH-sensitive CyA nanoparticles with a particle size of 50-60 nm and encapsulation efficiency over 95% could be reproducibly prepared. The bioavailability of CyA-HP50 and CyA-HP55 nanoparticle colloids calculated by the AUC(0-72) were 82.3% and 119.6%, similar to the reference of Neoral, while the bioavailability of CyA-HP55 nanoparticle colloids was found to be higher than that of CyA-HP50 nanoparticle colloids. The increase of mean residence time (MRT) and the decrease of elimination constant of the central compartment (K10) for both CyA-HP50 and CyA-HP55 nanoparticle colloids compared with the reference indicated significant sustained release of CyA from the nanoparticles. The effects of the suspending agents on the bioavailability of CyA-HP55 nanoparticles were observed, and the bioavailability decreased as the concentration of suspending agents or the viscosity of the nanoparticle colloids increased.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Cyclosporine / administration & dosage*
  • Cyclosporine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Male
  • Nanostructures*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Cyclosporine