Background: Caffeine ingestion decreases the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) for an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) and decreases insulin-induced glucose disposal in lean male subjects during a hyperinsulinemic clamp.
Objective: We examined the effects of caffeine ingestion on insulin and glucose homeostasis in obese men before and after a nutrition and exercise intervention.
Design: Nine sedentary, obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 34.0 +/- 1.0] men who had refrained from exercise and caffeine ingestion for 48 h underwent 2 oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs). The subjects randomly received caffeine (5 mg/kg) or placebo 1 h before each OGTT. After a 12-wk nutrition and exercise intervention, during which time the subjects avoided dietary caffeine, the OGTTs were repeated.
Results: The intervention resulted in decreases (P < or = 0.05) in body weight (8.5 +/- 1.5 kg), percentage body fat (2.8 +/- 0.7%), and fasting glucose, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations and increases in the ISI for the placebo OGTT (P < or = 0.05). Caffeine caused a greater (P < or = 0.05) OGTT insulin response and a lower (P < or = 0.05) ISI both before and after weight loss. The proinsulin-insulin ratio indicated that neither weight loss nor caffeine affected the nature of the beta cell secretion of insulin.
Conclusions: A nutrition and exercise intervention improved, whereas caffeine ingestion impaired, insulin-glucose homeostasis in obese men. The results are consistent with previous findings that caffeine ingestion contributes to insulin resistance.