L-Rhamnose increases serum propionate in humans

Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):89-94. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/80.1.89.


Background: Acetic and propionic acids are produced by colonic bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrates and are absorbed into the portal circulation. From there, they travel to the liver, where acetate is a lipogenic substrate and propionate can inhibit lipogenesis. The extent to which peripheral blood short-chain fatty acid concentrations reflect differences in colonic fermentation is uncertain. The unabsorbed sugar lactulose produces mainly acetate when fermented in vitro, whereas L-rhamnose yields propionate.

Objective: The objective of the study was to ascertain whether ingestion of L-rhamnose and lactulose would have different acute effects on peripheral acetate and propionate concentrations and on breath hydrogen and methane concentrations.

Design: Twenty-two subjects were fed 25 g L-rhamnose, lactulose, or glucose on 3 separate occasions in a randomized crossover design. Blood and breath samples were collected hourly for 12 h.

Results: Serum propionate was significantly higher with ingestion of L-rhamnose than with that of lactulose or glucose (P < 0.001). The area under the curve for serum acetate was significantly higher with ingestion of lactulose than with that of glucose (P < 0.03). The ratio of serum acetate to propionate was significantly higher with ingestion of lactulose than with that of glucose or L-rhamnose (P < 0.01). Breath hydrogen was significantly higher with ingestion of lactulose than with that of L-rhamnose or glucose (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The selective increases in serum acetate and propionate concentrations in humans were obtained by feeding specific fermentable substrates. Presumably, these changes in serum concentrations reflect changes in colonic production. Selective alteration of colonic fermentation products could yield a new mechanism for modifying blood lipids.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / blood*
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Area Under Curve
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Breath Tests
  • Chromatography, Gas
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Colon / microbiology*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile / blood
  • Female
  • Fermentation
  • Glucose / administration & dosage
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen / analysis
  • Lactulose / administration & dosage
  • Lactulose / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Methane / analysis
  • Propionates / blood*
  • Rhamnose / administration & dosage
  • Rhamnose / metabolism*


  • Acetates
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile
  • Propionates
  • Lactulose
  • Hydrogen
  • Glucose
  • Methane
  • Rhamnose