The sphingomyelin signalling pathway has been shown to function in different skeletal muscle types. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of endurance training on the functioning of the pathway in the muscles. The experiments were carried out on two groups of male Wistar rats: sedentary and trained for six weeks. 24h after cessation of the training rats were anaesthetized and samples of the soleus, red and white section of the gastrocnemius were taken. The content and composition of sphingomyelin-fatty acids and ceramide - fatty acids was determined by means of gas-liquid chromatography. The content of sphingosine and sphinganine was determined by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The activity of neutral Mg(++)-dependent sphingomyelinase was determined spectophotometrically using trinitrophenylaminolauroyl-sphingomyelin as the substrate. It has been found that training reduces the total content of sphingomyelin- and ceramide-fatty acids, increases the content of sphinganine and does not affect the content of sphingosine in individual muscle types. The activity of the enzyme in the muscles is also elevated. It is concluded that training affects functioning of the sphingomyelin -signalling pathway in skeletal muscles. The reduction in the content of ceramide may contribute to elevation in glucose uptake in skeletal muscles observed after training.