Cytosolic free Ca2+ serves as an important second messenger participating in signal transduction of various environmental stresses. However, molecular bases for the plasma membrane Ca2+ influx and its regulation remain largely unknown. We here identified a gene (OsTPC1) encoding a putative voltage-gated Ca2+ channel from rice, ubiquitously expressed in mature leaves, shoots and roots as well as in cultured cells. OsTPC1 rescued the Ca2+ uptake activity and growth rate of a yeast mutant cch1. To elucidate its physiological roles, we generated transgenic rice plants and cultured cells overexpressing OsTPC1 mRNA. Furthermore, a retrotransposon (Tos17) insertional knockout mutant of OsTPC1 was isolated. OsTPC1-overexpressing cells showed hypersensitivity to excess Ca2+ but higher growth rate under Ca2+ limitation, while growth of the OsTPC1-knockout cultured cells was less sensitive to extracellular free Ca2+ concentration, suggesting that OsTPC1 has Ca2+ transport activity across the plasma membrane. OsTPC1-overexpressing plants showed reduced growth and abnormal greening of roots. Growth of Ostpc1 seedlings was comparable to the control on agar plates, while significantly reduced in adult plants. These results suggest that OsTPC1 functions as a Ca2+ -permeable channel involved in the regulation of growth and development.