Increased surface roughness of dental implants has demonstrated greater bone apposition; however, the effect of modifying surface chemistry remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated bone apposition to a modified sandblasted/acid-etched (modSLA) titanium surface, as compared with a standard SLA surface, during early stages of bone regeneration. Experimental implants were placed in miniature pigs, creating 2 circular bone defects. Test and control implants had the same topography, but differed in surface chemistry. We created the test surface by submerging the implant in an isotonic NaCl solution following acid-etching to avoid contamination with molecules from the atmosphere. Test implants demonstrated a significantly greater mean percentage of bone-implant contact as compared with controls at 2 (49.30 vs. 29.42%; p = 0.017) and 4 wks (81.91 vs. 66.57%; p = 0.011) of healing. At 8 wks, similar results were observed. It is concluded that the modSLA surface promoted enhanced bone apposition during early stages of bone regeneration.