18F-labeled non-sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent (S)-2-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)-4-((3-methyl-1-(2-piperidin-1-yl-phenyl)-butylcarbamoyl)-methyl)-benzoic acid ([(18)F]repaglinide), a derivative of the sulfonylurea-receptor (SUR) ligand repaglinide, was synthesized as a potential tracer for the non-invasive investigation of the sulfonylurea 1 receptor status of pancreatic beta-cells by positron emission tomography (PET) in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. [(18)F]Repaglinide could be obtained in an overall radiochemical yield (RCY) of 20% after 135 min with a radiochemical purity higher than 98% applying the secondary labeling precursor 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyltosylate. Specific activity was in the range of 50-60 GBq/micromol. Labeling was conducted by exchanging the ethoxy-moiety into a 2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy group. To characterize the properties of fluorinated repaglinide, the affinity of the analogous non-radioactive (19)F-compound for binding to the human SUR1 isoform was assessed. [(19)F]Repaglinide induced a complete monophasic inhibition curve with a Hill coefficient close to 1 (1.03) yielding a dissociation constant (K(D)) of 134 nM. Biological activity was proven via insulin secretion experiments on isolated rat islets and was comparable to that of repaglinide. Finally, biodistribution of [(18)F]repaglinide was investigated in rats by measuring the concentration of the compound in different organs after i.v. injection. Pancreatic tissue displayed a stable accumulation of approximately 0.12% of the injected dose from 10 min to 30 min p.i. 50% of the radioactive tracer could be displaced by additional injection of unlabeled repaglinide, indicating that [(18)F]repaglinide might be suitable for in vivo investigation with PET.