We present a novel skull-stripping algorithm based on a hybrid approach that combines watershed algorithms and deformable surface models. Our method takes advantage of the robustness of the former as well as the surface information available to the latter. The algorithm first localizes a single white matter voxel in a T1-weighted MRI image, and uses it to create a global minimum in the white matter before applying a watershed algorithm with a preflooding height. The watershed algorithm builds an initial estimate of the brain volume based on the three-dimensional connectivity of the white matter. This first step is robust, and performs well in the presence of intensity nonuniformities and noise, but may erode parts of the cortex that abut bright nonbrain structures such as the eye sockets, or may remove parts of the cerebellum. To correct these inaccuracies, a surface deformation process fits a smooth surface to the masked volume, allowing the incorporation of geometric constraints into the skull-stripping procedure. A statistical atlas, generated from a set of accurately segmented brains, is used to validate and potentially correct the segmentation, and the MRI intensity values are locally re-estimated at the boundary of the brain. Finally, a high-resolution surface deformation is performed that accurately matches the outer boundary of the brain, resulting in a robust and automated procedure. Studies by our group and others outperform other publicly available skull-stripping tools.
Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.