The biology of Kaposi sarcoma is poorly understood because the dominant cell type in Kaposi sarcoma lesions is not known. We show by gene expression microarrays that neoplastic cells of Kaposi sarcoma are closely related to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and that Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infects both LECs and blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) in vitro. The gene expression microarray profiles of infected LECs and BECs show that KSHV induces transcriptional reprogramming of both cell types. The lymphangiogenic molecules VEGF-D and angiopoietin-2 were elevated in the plasma of individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and Kaposi sarcoma. These data show that the gene expression profile of Kaposi sarcoma resembles that of LECs, that KSHV induces a transcriptional drift in both LECs and BECs and that lymphangiogenic molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma.