Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;58(7):1071-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601935.


Objective: To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on circulating lipids, insulin, glucose and uric acid concentrations which are known cardiovascular risk factors.

Design: A randomised crossover dietary intervention study.

Setting: Nottingham, UK--Healthy free-living women.

Subjects: A total of nine lean healthy women aged 18-42 y recruited via advertisement.

Intervention: A randomised crossover trial with two phases of 14 days each. In Phase 1, subjects consumed their normal diet on either 6 occasions per day (regular) or by following a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/day, irregular). In Phase 2, subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-week (wash-out) period. Subjects were asked to come to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. Blood samples were taken for measurement of circulating glucose, lipids, insulin and uric acid concentrations before and for 3 h after consumption of a high-carbohydrate test meal.

Results: Fasting glucose and insulin values were not affected by meal frequency, but peak insulin and AUC of insulin responses to the test meal were higher after the irregular compared to the regular eating patterns (P < 0.01). The irregular meal frequency was associated with higher fasting total (P < 0.01) and LDL (P < 0.05) cholesterol.

Conclusion: The irregular meal frequency appears to produce a degree of insulin resistance and higher fasting lipid profiles, which may indicate a deleterious effect on these cardiovascular risk factors.

Sponsorship: : The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Eating*
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Feeding Behavior / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Lipids