14-3-3 gene characterization and description of a second 14-3-3 isoform in both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis

Parasitol Res. 2004 Aug;93(5):403-9. doi: 10.1007/s00436-004-1147-z. Epub 2004 Jun 25.


Members of the 14-3-3 protein family have been identified as regulatory molecules in intracellular signaling pathways and cell cycle control. Previously, the first Echinococcus 14-3-3 isoform (E14-3-3.1) was isolated from E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestode stages. Hyperexpression of this isoform was claimed to be associated with non-restricted tumor-like growth of the E. multilocularis metacestode. In this report, we describe the characterization of a 14-3-3 cDNA from E. granulosus and E. multilocularis corresponding to a second isoform of this family, E14-3-3.2. The characterized 14-3-3 gene was interrupted by two introns whose sequence and positions were conserved in both Echinococcus species. The deduced amino acid sequence of E14-3-3.2 showed 88% identity to the E14-3-3.1 isoform and 52% identity to a third Echinococcus isoform (E14-3-3.3) described by other authors. These findings, coupled to Southern blot analysis, suggest the presence of more than one 14-3-3 gene in Echinococcus. Phylogenenetically, the Echinococcus 14-3-3.1 and 14-3-3.2 isoforms appeared to cluster with zeta-type ("pro-tumorigenic") 14-3-3 isoforms from closely related organisms, whereas the E14-3-3.3 isoform grouped with 14-3-3 epsilon isoforms. The presence of more than one 14-3-3 isoform might indicate isoform-specific roles in the different parasite stages of Echinococcus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA, Helminth / chemistry
  • Echinococcus / genetics*
  • Genes, Helminth*
  • Helminth Proteins / chemistry
  • Helminth Proteins / genetics*
  • Introns
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / chemistry
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / genetics*


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA, Helminth
  • Helminth Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF529418
  • GENBANK/AF529419
  • GENBANK/AF529420