To examine the response of rice to salt stress, changes in protein expression were analyzed using a proteomic approach. To investigate dose- and time-dependent responses, rice seedlings were exposed to 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl for 6 to 48 h. Proteins were extracted from leaf sheath and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eight proteins showed 1- to 3-fold up-regulation in leaf sheath, in response to 50 mM NaCl for 24 h. Among these, three proteins were unidentified (LSY081, LSY262 and LSY363) while five proteins were identified as fructose bisphosphate aldolases, photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolving complex protein, oxygen evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The maximum expression levels of seven proteins were at 24 h. Their expression declined after 48 h of 50 mM NaCl treatment. In contrast, SOD maintained its elevated expression throughout these conditions. The increased expression of proteins seen in the 50 mM NaCl treatment group was less pronounced in the groups receiving 100 or 150 mM NaCl for 24 h. The expression of SOD was a common response to cold, drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA) stresses while the expression of LSY081, LSY363 and OEE2 was enhanced by salt and ABA stresses. LSY262 was expressed in leaf sheath and root, while fructose bisphosphate aldolases, PSII oxygen evolving complex protein and OEE2 were expressed in leaf sheath and leaf blade. LSY363 was expressed in leaf sheath but was below the level of detection in leaf blade and root. These results indicate that specific proteins expressed in specific regions of rice show a coordinated response to salt stress.