The indoleamine-accumulating amacrine cells of the rabbit retina are wide-field and numerous. They form a dense plexus in sublamina 5 of the inner plexiform layer where they make reciprocal synapses with rod bipolar cells. To provide a quantitative test for the colocalization of serotonin (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rabbit retina, we designed two parallel double-label experiments. In the first series, the indoleamine-accumulating cells were labeled with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), which was subsequently visualized by photooxidation in the presence of diaminobenzidine. This was combined with autoradiography for 3H-muscimol. In the second and complementary series, 3H-5-HT uptake was combined with postembedding GABA immunocytochemistry. These two experiments provided essentially identical results: over 98% of the indoleamine-accumulating amacrine cells were double-labeled. This means that, within the limit of experimental error, all the indoleamine-accumulating amacrine cells are GABAergic. The indoleamine-accumulating amacrine cells account for 15-20% of a large diverse group of GABA amacrine cells. In addition, the rare type 3 indoleamine-accumulating cells and fine processes running in the optic fiber layer were double-labeled. If there is insufficient 5-HT to support a transmitter role in the rabbit retina, our results suggest that the indoleamine-accumulating cells may use GABA as a neurotransmitter. Thus, rod bipolar cells, in common with other bipolar cell types, receive extensive negative feedback at GABA-mediated reciprocal synapses.