This study examined associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms in 1,151 community-dwelling adults in Japan. Physical activity was measured using a pedometer, whereas depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. A structural equation modeling with a cross-lagged panel design revealed that for the older adults (65-79 years of age), daily walking at baseline predicted fewer depressive symptoms at the 2-year follow-up, even after adjusting for confounders. In contrast, the association was not confirmed for the middle-aged adults (40-64 years of age). Findings suggest that age should be considered when estimating the effect of physical activity on psychological well-being.
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