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, 4 (2), 139-44; discussion 151-5

Analyzing Anger: How to Make People Mad


Analyzing Anger: How to Make People Mad

Gerald L Clore et al. Emotion.


Does simple displeasure cause anger without appraisals or agency attributions? The authors offer 8 observations: (a) Appraisal theory also predicts that displeasure promotes anger, (b) An emotion of frustration can be usefully distinguished from anger, (c) Aggressive reactions to norm violations among animals suggest that they too distinguish bad behavior from bad outcomes, (d) Attributions to agency are perceptual and automatic in social situations, (e) It is tenuous to argue that agency attributions are enacted in angry aggression, but absent in anger elicitation. (f) The contextualized meanings of expressive movements, rather than movements themselves, elicit emotion, (g) Expressions may be better seen as constituents than as causes of emotions, (h) Cognitive components of emotion generally come before, not after, eliciting events.

Comment on

  • Toward an Understanding of the Determinants of Anger
    L Berkowitz et al. Emotion 4 (2), 107-30. PMID 15222847. - Review
    Research bearing on several popular conceptions of the major determinants of anger arousal indicates that the particular appraisals often identified as causes of anger fr …

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