In this study, we have assessed age and gender-related influences on the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and closely related variables in Type 2 diabetic patients attending a diabetes clinic. For this purpose, we have taken retrospective clinical and biochemical data from consecutive Type 2 diabetic patients (n = 291) and we have classified them by gender, age (with 55 and 70 years as cut-off levels) and having or not having the MS (using both the WHO and NCEP-ATP III MS definitions). A higher prevalence of adiposity and hypertension was present in the females. Males were characterized by higher uric acid and lower HDL-cholesterol and apoA(1) levels (two-way ANOVA considering jointly age and gender as main effects, P < 0.05 in every case). Overall the prevalence of NCEP-ATP III-defined MS was less frequent than WHO-defined MS (63.2% versus 81.1%, respectively). This difference was greater for males (42.1% versus 77.6%, respectively) than for females (75.5% versus 83.2% respectively). The kappa-coefficient for the concordance between both MS definitions was 0.46 for males and 0.72 for females in the first age band, 0.29 for males and 0.48 for females in the second age band and 0.24 for males and 0.51 for females in the third age band. Thus, this study reveals relevant differences in the application of WHO and NCEP-ATP III MS definitions in a clinic-based Type 2 diabetic population from Southern Spain. In addition, the data suggest that gender confers a specific influence upon some MS-associated features in Type 2 diabetic patients attending a diabetes clinic irrespective of age band.