Developing a treatment manual for attention management in chronic pain

Cogn Behav Ther. 2004;33(1):1-11. doi: 10.1080/16506070310001794.


This article reports the development of a protocol for the therapeutic application of "attention control" for chronic pain. Attention control is the limitation of the impact of pain by switching or retunning attention. An expert systems approach was used to develop the protocol. In the first stage an extensive literature search retrieved published and unpublished accounts of attention control strategies and a draft treatment manual was prepared. In the second stage 6 experts were recruited and they independently read and reviewed the draft manual. They were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol to elicit their views on the draft manual. The manual was then revised to accommodate the information and expertise. In addition to providing expert opinion on the manual the experts also raised issues about the process of change in psychological treatment for chronic pain. These issues were organized into a process model of change in chronic pain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Attention*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Manuals as Topic*
  • Pain Management*