Murine brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 and 2 (mBAI1, mBAI2) are involved in angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia. In this study, mBAI3 was cloned and characterized. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated a unique developmental expression pattern in the brain. The level of mBAI3 in brain peaked 1 day after birth, unlike mBAI1 and mBAI2, which peaked 10 days after birth. In situ hybridization analyses of the brain showed the same localization of BAI3 as BAI1 and BAI2, which includes most neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In the in vivo focal cerebral ischemia model, BAI3 expression decreased from 0.5 h after hypoxia until 8 h, but returned to control level after 24 h. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor following ischemia showed an inverse pattern. The decreased expressions of BAIs in high-grade gliomas were observed, but BAI3 expression was generally lower in malignant gliomas than in normal brain. Our results indicate that the expression and distribution of BAI3 in normal brain, but not its developmental expression, are very similar to those of BAI1 and BAI2, and that BAI3 may participate in the early phases of ischemia-induced brain angiogenesis and in brain tumor progression.