Effects of age, gender and holding on pain response during infant immunization

Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Spring;11(1):e2-7. Epub 2004 Apr 1.


Determinants of infant pain responses are important when assessing the efficacy of analgesics. In a randomized controlled trial, 106 infants aged 2 to 6 months were positioned either supine (SUP) on the examination table or held (HLD) by a parent during routine immunization in a community pediatric office. There was no difference between the SUP and HLD infants in duration of crying, facial grimacing or visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores. Similarly gender did not affect pain response. In contrast, 2-month-old infants displayed more pain during immunization than did 4 or 6-month-old infants.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunization / adverse effects
  • Immunization / methods*
  • Immunization / statistics & numerical data
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Pain / epidemiology
  • Pain Measurement / methods*
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Supine Position / physiology
  • Touch* / physiology