Since July 1982, 18 patients have undergone orthotopic cardiac transplantation at the Texas Heart Institute with steroid and cyclosporine immunosuppression. There have been no deaths from infection despite 15 bacterial, 8 viral, 6 fungal and 1 protozoal infection episodes. With a total follow-up of 90 patient months (mean follow-up, 5.0 months; range 0.1 to 18 months), the incidence of infection is 33 episodes per 100 patient months (1.7 episodes per patient). Only 23 episodes (77%) required drug treatment. Compared to conventional immunosuppressive regimes, cyclosporine treatment is associated with a substantial reduction in the incidence and severity of infection in cardiac allograft recipients.