Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder generally affecting girls. Affected individuals are apparently normal at birth but later pass through a period of regression with loss of hand and communication skills and the development of hand stereotypies and dyspraxia. Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, have now been found to cause Rett syndrome in up to 80% of classical cases. We report a girl with Down syndrome, one of three children with birth defects in a family of five. From the age of 18 months she developed symptomatology considered by her primary physician to be very characteristic of Rett syndrome. However, this remained a clinical diagnosis till the age of 12 years. Laboratory confirmation of the dual diagnosis, which includes a R168X mutation in the MECP2 gene in addition to trisomy 21, has now been possible. The presence of one neurological or developmental disorder does not necessarily preclude a diagnosis of Rett syndrome.