We have carried out a randomised trial comparing brief behavioural counselling with nutritional education counselling to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and associated biomarkers in adults from a low-income neighbourhood. The objective of the present analysis was to assess the impact of interventions on quality of life and health status, and associations between changes in fruit and vegetable consumption, plasma vitamins C and E, and quality of life. Behavioural counselling and nutritional education counselling were carried out in 271 adults in two 15 min sessions in a primary-care setting. Physical and mental health status (medical outcome study short form 36) and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 months, and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Both groups reported increased fruit and vegetable consumption; plasma vitamin E and beta-carotene also increased, with significantly greater changes in consumption and plasma beta-carotene in the behavioural counselling condition. Physical and mental health status, and the proportion of participants in good self-rated health, increased in both groups to a similar extent. Individual differences in improvements in physical health status and self-rated health were correlated with increases in fruit and vegetable intake and in plasma vitamins C and E, independently of age, gender, ethnicity, financial status, smoking, BMI and use of vitamin supplements. We conclude that participation in the present study was associated with improved health-related quality of life. Increases in fruit and vegetable intake and plasma vitamin levels may stimulate beneficial changes in physical health status in socio-economically deprived adults.