Fibulin-5 (FBLN-5) is a widely expressed, integrin-binding extracellular matrix protein that mediates endothelial cell adhesion and scaffolds cells to elastic fibers. It is also a gene target of TGF-beta in fibroblasts and endothelial cells that regulates cell proliferation and motility in a context-specific manner. Whereas FBLN-5 expression is low in adult vasculature, its expression is high in developing and injured vasculature, implicating FBLN-5 in regulating angiogenesis and endothelial cell function. We show here that TGF-beta stimulates FBLN-5 expression in endothelial cells, and that this response was inhibited by coadministration of the proangiogenic factor, VEGF. FBLN-5 expression was downregulated significantly during endothelial cell tubulogenesis, implying that FBLN-5 expression antagonizes angiogenesis. Accordingly, FBLN-5 overexpression in or recombinant FBLN-5 treatment of endothelial cells abrogated their ability to undergo angiogenic sprouting, doing so by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and invasion through Matrigel matrices. Moreover, FBLN-5 antagonized VEGF signaling in endothelial cells, as well as enhanced their expression of the antiangiogenic factor, thrombospondin-1. Finally, the ability of FBLN-5 to antagonize angiogenic processes was determined to be independent of its integrin-binding RGD motif. Collectively, our findings establish FBLN-5 as a novel antagonist of angiogenesis and endothelial cell activities, and offer new insights into why tumorigenesis downregulates FBLN-5 expression.