Amylin is a peptide hormone secreted from the beta cells of the pancreatic islets. Amylin was administered peripherally or centrally following weak or strong training on footshock avoidance conditioning in a T-maze. Under conditions of weak training, amylin improved memory retention in a dose-dependent manner. Under conditions of strong training, it impaired retention over the same dose range. Central administration of amylin in mice given strong training impaired retention but had no effect on the retention of mice given weak training. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of action by which amylin altered memory processing are different for peripheral and central administration. Peripherally secreted amylin may play a role in the amnesia seen in diabetes and the memory enhancement following glucose administration.