The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of (124)I positron emission tomography (PET) using a combined PET/CT tomograph in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and to compare the PET/CT results with (131)I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), dedicated PET and CT alone. Twelve thyroid cancer patients were referred for diagnostic workup and entered complete clinical evaluation, including histology, cytology, thyroglobulin level, ultrasonography, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, FDG-PET/CT and CT. Lesion-based evaluation showed a lesion delectability of 56, 87 and 100% for CT, (124)I-PET, and combined (124)I-PET/CT imaging, respectively. Lesion delectability of (131)I-WBS was 83%. We conclude that (124)I-PET/CT imaging is a promising technique to improve treatment planning in thyroid cancer. It is particularly valuable in patients suffering from advanced differentiated thyroid cancer prior to radio-iodine therapy and in patients with suspected recurrence and potential metastatic disease.