Increased prevalence of depression, smoking, heavy drinking and use of psycho-active drugs among unemployed men in France

Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(5):445-51. doi: 10.1023/


Background: We document in the present study the relation between unemployment and the prevalence of health problems and risk behaviour in France.

Methods: Using data from the 1991-1992 French National Health Survey, adjustments are made for potential confounders, and relative risks (RR) are estimated for overweight, major physical diseases, depression, and addictive behaviours.

Results and conclusion: Unemployed men are found to have significantly higher prevalences of depression (RR: 2.6), smoking (RR: 1.5 for regular and 1.7 for heavy), heavy drinking (RR: 1.7) and consumption of psycho-active drugs (RR: 3.6) than the working population.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Chronic Disease / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Family Characteristics
  • France / epidemiology
  • Health Behavior*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity
  • Prevalence
  • Risk-Taking
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Unemployment / psychology*
  • Unemployment / statistics & numerical data