Metabolic syndrome in subjects with type-2 diabetes mellitus

J Natl Med Assoc. 2004 Jun;96(6):817-21.


Background: Each component of metabolic syndrome (MS) conveys increased cardiovascular disease risk, but as a combination they become much more powerful. Vigorous early management of the syndrome may have a significant impact on the prevention of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Aim: This study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of MS and its relation to cardiovascular events among patients with type-2 diabetic mellitus.

Methods: The study group consisted of 218 type-2 diabetic patients. These were screened for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, microalbuminuria, and cardiovascular events.

Results: There were 128 (58.7%) males and 90 (41.3%) females. The mean age was 53.4 +/- 6.3 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.5 +/- 5.4 (males-23.4 +/- 4.2; females-26.2 +/- 5.7). MS was present in 55 (25.2%) of the study population. Systemic hypertension was the most common component of MS seen in 84 (38.5%) patients. The mean serum total cholesterol was 168.6 +/- 25.8 mg% (men 153 +/- 23; women 169 +/- 19; p > 0.05). Eight female and 12 male patients had serum total cholesterol > or = 200 mg%. Dyslipidemia occurs more commonly in males than females. Obesity was more common in female patients than in males. Out of 128 male type-2 patients with diabetes seen, 111 (86.7%) were without microalbuminuria. The corresponding figure among the females was 90% (81 out of 90 patients).

Conclusions: The study demonstrated that MS was present in 25.2% of the study population. The syndrome and its different components were positively associated with a higher risk of stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and occurrence of microalbuminuria, p < 0.001. Ischemic heart disease occurs rarely in the population. A long-term, targeted, intensive intervention involving multiple cardiovascular risk factors is recommended to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular and microvascular events among patients with type-2 diabetic mellitus.

MeSH terms

  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Obesity
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors