Developmental toxicity and stress protein responses in zebrafish embryos after exposure to diclofenac and its solvent, DMSO

Chemosphere. 2004 Aug;56(7):659-66. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.007.


One of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in environmental water samples is the anti-rheumatic drug, diclofenac. Despite its increasing environmental significance, investigations concerning the effects of this drug on the early developmental stages of aquatic species are lacking up to now. To determine the developmental toxicity and proteotoxicity of this drug on the growing fish embryos, eggs of zebrafish were exposed to six concentrations of diclofenac (0, 1, 20, 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 microg l(-1)) using DMSO as solvent. Early life stage parameters such as egg and embryo mortality, gastrulation, somite formation, movement and tail detachment, pigmentation, heart beat, and hatching success were noted and described within 48- and 96-h of exposure. After the 96-h exposure, the levels of stress proteins (hsp 70) were determined in both the diclofenac-treated and respective DMSO controls. Results showed no significant inhibition in the normal development until the end of 96 h for all exposure groups. However, there was a delay in the hatching time among embryos exposed to 1000 and 2000 microg l(-1). Late-hatched embryos (108 h) did not differ morphologically from normally hatched embryos. The mortality and average heart rate data did not show significant differences for all embryos in both diclofenac-treated and DMSO control groups. No significant malformations were likewise noted among all developing embryos throughout the exposure period. The levels of heat shock proteins in diclofenac-treated and control embryos did not differ significantly. DMSO control embryos, on the other hand, showed a concentration-dependent increase in hsp 70 levels. We suggest possible modulating effect of diclofenac in DMSO-triggered expression of stress proteins and this might have a possible repercussion on the use of DMSO as solvent in any toxicity assay. Since the present data indicate no significant embryotoxicity and proteotoxicity induced by diclofenac and due to the fact that the concentrations of diclofenac used in the present study is up to 2000-fold higher than the concentrations detected in the environment, it is unlikely that this drug would pose a hazard to early-life stages of zebrafish.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Diclofenac / toxicity*
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide / toxicity*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / drug effects
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / metabolism
  • Gastrula / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism*
  • Pigmentation / drug effects
  • Somites / drug effects
  • Toxicity Tests, Acute
  • Zebrafish / embryology*
  • Zebrafish / metabolism


  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • heat-shock protein 70.1
  • Diclofenac
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide