The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria was created to increase funds to combat these three devastating diseases. We report interim findings, based on interviews with 137 national-level respondents that track early implementation processes in four African countries. Country coordinating mechanisms (CCMs) are country-level partnerships, which were formed quickly to develop and submit grant proposals to the Global Fund. CCM members were often ineffective at representing their constituencies and encountered obstacles in participating in CCM processes. Delay in dissemination of guidelines from the Global Fund led to uncertainty among members about the function of these new partnerships. Respondents expressed most concern about the limited capacity of fund recipients--government and non-government--to meet Global Fund conditions for performance-based disbursement. Delays in payment of funds to implementing agencies have frustrated rapid financing of disease control interventions. The Global Fund is one of several new global initiatives superimposed on existing country systems to finance the control of HIV/AIDS. New and existing donors need to coordinate assistance to developing countries by bringing together funding, planning, management, and reporting systems if global goals for disease control are to be achieved.