Photosynthetic acclimation to CO2-limiting stress is associated with control of genetic and physiological responses through a signal transduction pathway, followed by integrated monitoring of the environmental changes. Although several CO2-responsive genes have been previously isolated, genome-wide analysis has not been applied to the isolation of CO2-responsive genes that may function as part of a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in photosynthetic eukaryotes. By comparing expression profiles of cells grown under CO2-rich conditions with those of cells grown under CO2-limiting conditions using a cDNA membrane array containing 10,368 expressed sequence tags, 51 low-CO2 inducible genes and 32 genes repressed by low CO2 whose mRNA levels were changed more than 2.5-fold in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard were detected. The fact that the induction of almost all low-CO2 inducible genes was impaired in the ccm1 mutant suggests that CCM1 is a master regulator of CCM through putative low-CO2 signal transduction pathways. Among low-CO2 inducible genes, two novel genes, LciA and LciB, were identified, which may be involved in inorganic carbon transport. Possible functions of low-CO2 inducible and/or CCM1-regulated genes are discussed in relation to the CCM.