Asymptomatic genital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is common, and one or more test-of-cure consultations in such cases is routine. The economic implications of two post-treatment strategies, either no test-of-cure, or one test-of-cure consultation with a single test for C. trachomatis, renewed treatment, and another test-of-cure of those still chlamydia-positive, and so on, have been compared. The costs of the test-of-cure strategy are twice those of the no-test regimen. Without test-of-cure, 79 more cases of pelvic inflammatory disease, 8 cases of infertility requiring treatment, and 2 cases of ectopic pregnancy would occur for every 10,000 patients. It is concluded that routine test-of-cure of asymptomatic genital chlamydial infections after treatment is not cost beneficial.