Post-translational modification of proteins is an efficient way cells use to control the activity of structural proteins, gene expression regulatory proteins, and enzymes. In eukaryotes, the Sir2-dependent system of protein acetylation/deacetylation controls a number of processes that affect cell longevity. Sir2 proteins have NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase activity and are found in all forms of life. Although the identity of the acetyltransferases that partner with Sir2 enzymes is known in eukaryotes, the identity of the prokaryotic acetyltransferases is not. We report the identification of the gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encoding the major protein acetyltransferase (Pat) enzyme that, in concert with the CobB sirtuin of this bacterium, regulates the activity of the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs). The Pat enzyme uses acetyl-CoA as substrate to modify residue Lys609 of Acs. The Pat/CobB system of S.enterica should serve as the paradigm to further investigate the contributions of this system to the physiology of prokaryotes.