Glycemic patterns detected by continuous subcutaneous glucose sensing in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated by multiple daily injections vs continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Jul;158(7):677-84. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.158.7.677.


Objective: To compare glycemic patterns by mode of therapy in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS).

Design: Open randomized crossover comparing 3(1/2) months of multiple daily injections (MDI) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

Setting: Tertiary care, university-affiliated medical center. Patients Twenty-three children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Interventions: The CGMS was applied for 72 hours after 1 month and at the end of each study arm.

Main outcome measures: Hemoglobin A(1c) levels and glucose level profiles were compared between the 2 study arms and the 2 sensor applications for each arm.

Results: The arms were similar for mean (SD) hemoglobin A(1c) levels (CSII, 8.0% [0.8%]; and MDI, 8.2% [0.8%]) and glucose levels. Areas under the curve were significantly larger during MDI for nocturnal and 24-hour hypoglycemia (P =.01 and.04, respectively) and for postprandial hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia (P =.03 and.05, respectively). The rate of hyperglycemia increased during CSII (P =.03), but 24-hour duration and area under the curve for hyperglycemia were similar. Compared with the first CGMS reading in each arm, the second had a longer mean duration of postprandial within-target glucose levels (P =.04), tendency for lower rate of diurnal hypoglycemic events (P =.1), shorter duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia (P =.05), and smaller 24-hour area under the curve for hypoglycemia (P =.04).

Conclusions: Intensive treatment with CSII seemed to be associated with slightly better prebreakfast, postprandial, and within-target glucose profiles than MDI, as well as a smaller area under the curve for hypoglycemia. Lower hypoglycemia-related variables in the second sensor reading in each arm indicate that the CGMS may serve as an educational tool to decrease the rate and magnitude of hypoglycemia.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Child
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Injections, Subcutaneous / methods
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Male
  • Time Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin