Development of prostate cancer and progression to androgen-independent disease is correlated with increased expression of growth factors and receptors capable of establishing autocrine and/or paracrine growth-stimulatory loops. A thorough review was made of the current literature and recent abstract presentations at scientific meetings focusing on the role of the HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) receptor in prostate cancer and the potential clinical usefulness of its specific inhibitors. In the past 10 years, conflicting results on HER-2/neu expression in prostate cancer have been reported. More recently, four studies have shown experimental evidence of HER-2/neu in the development of prostate cancer and, more specifically, in the progression to a hormone-refractory clinical behavior. Furthermore, it has been proposed that HER-2 family and androgen receptors function synergistically in the absence of androgen, which suggests a cross-talk between the HER-2/neu and androgen receptor pathways. Finally, clinical trials are in progress in prostate cancer patients to test novel agents that selectively interfere with HER-2/neu activity.