Aims: The aim of this study was to determine non-occupational risk factors for bladder cancer in Serbia.
Methods and design: A hospital-based, case-control study included 130 newly diagnosed bladder cancer patients and the same number of individually matched controls with respect to sex, age (+/- 2 years) and type of residence (rural or urban), from the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade and from the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in central Serbia. The study took place from June 1997 to March 1999.
Results: According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was an association between: frequency of daily urination (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.08-0.39); consumption of liver (OR = 13.81; 95% CI = 2.49-76.69), canned meat (OR = 8.38; 95% CI = 1.74-40.36), fruit juices (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-0.56); the highest tertile of pork (OR = 4.55; 95% CI = 1.30-15.93), cabbage (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.06-1.01) and vinegar (OR = 4.41; 95% CI = 1.18-16.50) intake and risk for bladder cancer.
Conclusions: Consumption of liver, canned meat, pork (h vs l tertile) and vinegar (m vs l tertile) was indicated as a risk factor for bladder cancer, whereas frequent daily urination, consumption of fruit juices and cabbage (h vs l tertile) were indicated as protective factors.