This study used national survey data of working adults (aged 33-41) to identify factors associated with the occurrence of occupational injuries and illnesses. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to compare selected employment and personal characteristics for respondents who reported experiencing a work-related injury or illness with those who did not. Multivariate analyses were performed to calculate nationally representative odds ratios reflecting the likelihood for specific individual attributes and job characteristics to be associated with the reporting of a work-related injury or illness, while controlling for relevant covariates. In this study the incidence of occupational injuries was related to several demographic factors, including low family income and rural residence, and several job characteristics, including working in a high-hazard occupation, job dissatisfaction, and exposure to six specific hazardous job activities: (1) performing lots of physical effort on the job, (2) lifting or carrying more than 10 lbs, (3) using stairs and inclines, (4) kneeling or crouching, (5) reaching, and (6) hearing special sounds. These results suggest targeted prevention strategies for decreasing the incidence of work-related injuries and illnesses, such as worker self-assessment of the total physical effort demanded by a job and periodic monitoring of workforce job satisfaction.