The retrieval and formation of cortical object representations seem to require the activation of neuronal cell assemblies, correlated by synchronized neuronal activity in the gamma band range (>20 Hz). In the present electroencephalogram (EEG) study we have analysed induced gamma band activity during the repetition of familiar (meaningful) and unfamiliar (meaningless) line drawings. Results showed a broad posterior distribution of induced gamma band responses (GBRs) after the initial presentation of a familiar stimulus. Repeated presentations of the same picture resulted in a decrease of GBRs, accompanied by a decrease in the number of electrode pairs exhibiting significant phase-locking values. These effects might be linked to a 'sharpening' mechanism within a cell assembly representing a familiar object. In contrast, the re-presentation of primed unfamiliar stimuli was associated with an augmentation of gamma power and an increase in significantly phase-locked pairs of electrodes. These findings might be a signature of the formation of a new cortical network representing an object. Event related potentials (ERPs) showed a decrease in amplitude independent of the stimuli's associative content, and, thus, seem to play a complementary role in repetition priming as compared to high-frequency brain dynamics.