Hepatocyte transplantation is emerging as a possible treatment for patients with acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic disorders. With the limited availability of donor tissue, it is important to find new sources of liver tissue for isolation of high-quality hepatocytes. Segment IV with or without the caudate lobe was removed during three split-liver procedures. Hepatocytes were isolated from the tissues using a collagenase perfusion technique under strict sterile conditions. The mean number of hepatocytes that were isolated was 5.14 x 10(8) cells with a mean cell viability of 89%. Two of the hepatocyte preparations were used for cell transplantation in a 1-day-old boy with an antenatal diagnosis of a severe urea cycle defect caused by ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. The six recipients of split-liver grafts demonstrated no complications related to the removal of segment IV. Segment IV with or without the caudate lobe obtained from split-liver procedures is potentially a good source of high-quality hepatocytes for cell transplantation.