The appearance of Oskar protein occurs coincident with localization of oskar mRNA to the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte, and earlier accumulation of the protein is prevented by translational repression. We find that the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) is required for correct localization of oskar mRNA. The timing of the defects suggests that, if NAC acts directly via an interaction with nascent Oskar protein, oskar mRNA should be undergoing translation prior to its localization. Polysome analysis confirms that oskar mRNA is associated with polysomes even in the absence of localization of the mRNA or accumulation of Oskar protein. Thus, the mechanisms that prevent accumulation of Oskar protein until it can be secured at the posterior pole of the oocyte include regulated degradation or inhibition of translational elongation.