Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: reliability in a Turkish sample and factor analysis

Tuberk Toraks. 2004;52(2):115-21.


Fagerstom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) has often been used as a measure of physical dependence on nicotine. In this study, we aimed to verify the usefulness of FTND and Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) in a sample of Turkish smokers and present relationship among interrelated items in our Turkish version of FTND by factor analysis. One hundred sixty nine smokers, 104 (61.5%) males, 65 (38.5%) females smoker were administered the Turkish translation of FTND. Fifty-two current smokers selected randomly from 169 were administered the questionnaire for test- retest reliability analysis. The Turkish version of FTND had moderate reliability (Cronbach alpha: 0.56). One FTND item (question 3: hate- most to give up) performed poorly on construct reliability tests. Factor 1 was loaded by questions 1 (first cigarette after awakening), 4 (number of cigarettes per day), 5 (smoking status during the first hours), 6 (smoking if ill), 2 (refrain from smoking in forbidden places) and factor 2 was separately loaded by question 3. Question 3 did not have significant correlation with the total score and the response to this question was significant between test and retest. The Turkish version of FTND may become a measuring tool in the assessment of smoking cessation programs. However, question 3 must be used attentively and preferably an explanation should be made to enable a clear understanding of the question to the Turkish smokers as they take the test.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Turkey


  • Nicotine