We have developed a new detection method of deiminated proteins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Citrulline residues in enzymatically deiminated histones were modified by incubating with diacetyl monoxime and antipyrine in a strong acid mixture. The products were injected to rabbits, and the antibodies obtained were affinity-purified using a modified citrulline column. Sample proteins blotted to the membrane were modified in a similar manner and incubated successively with the purified antibody and an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated second antibody. Detection was performed using a chemiluminescent substrate. The method enabled detection of 3-10 fmol of citrulline residues dot blotted as deiminated model proteins. It visualized numerous rat pituitary soluble proteins that had been enzymatically deiminated and Western blotted to the membrane. The data suggest usefulness of the method for detecting deiminated proteins regardless of the backbone protein molecules. Search for deiminated proteins on the Western blots of various rat tissue homogenates detected a single band on that of spinal cord, another band on that of uterus, and multiple bands on those of skin and hair root. The bands in the former two tissue homogenates comigrated with glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, respectively.