This review is an attempt to highlight the value of human intracranial recordings (intracranial electro-encephalography, iEEG) for human brain mapping, based on their technical characteristics and based on the corpus of results they have already yielded. The advantages and limitations of iEEG recordings are introduced in detail, with an estimation of their spatial and temporal resolution for both monopolar and bipolar recordings. The contribution of iEEG studies to the general field of human brain mapping is discussed through a review of the effects observed in the iEEG while patients perform cognitive tasks. Those effects range from the generation of well-localized evoked potentials to the formation of large-scale interactions between distributed brain structures, via long-range synchrony in particular. A framework is introduced to organize those iEEG studies according to the level of complexity of the spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity found to correlate with cognition. This review emphasizes the value of iEEG for the study of large-scale interactions, and describes in detail the few studies that have already addressed this point.