Familial hyperchylomicronemia due to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity deficiency (Type I hyperlipoproteinemia) is an autosomal recessive disorder with a prevalence estimated at one case per million. Thirty-four type I individuals are known in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ), a geographically isolated region of Quebec. The prevalence of type I and LPL deficient heterozygote in this region was estimated at 1/6382 and 1/46 inhabitants respectively. The mean inbreeding coefficient was slightly elevated in the type I group compared with three control groups. The mean kinship coefficient was 15.1 times higher in the type I group than in the control groups. The high prevalence of type I in SLSJ appears to be the result of the emigration of carriers of LPL deficiency from Charlevoix, another isolated region of quebec to the SLSJ region. Endogamy also played a crucial role in increasing the prevalence of type I in SLSJ.