Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder with a prevalence of 5% to 15%. Primary care physicians must become familiar with management of this disorder. This algorithm for the management of RLS was written by members of the Medical Advisory Board of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation and is based on scientific evidence and expert opinion. Restless legs syndrome is divided into intermittent, daily, and refractory types. Nonpharmacological approaches, including mental alerting activities, avoiding substances or medications that may exacerbate RLS, and addressing the possibility of iron deficiency, are discussed. The role of carbidopa/levodopa, dopamine agonists, opioids, benzodiazepines, and anticonvulsants for the different types of the disorder is delineated.