Safety and immunogenicity of RIX4414 live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in adults, toddlers and previously uninfected infants

Vaccine. 2004 Jul 29;22(21-22):2836-42. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.01.044.


A live attenuated human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine, strain RIX4414, was tested sequentially in adults, previously infected toddlers, and previously uninfected infants. A single dose was given to adults and toddlers and found well tolerated. Next, a dose ranging (three different viral concentrations) safety and immunogenicity study was conducted in rotavirus IgA antibody negative infants (N= 192), who received two doses of RIX4414 vaccine or placebo at 2 and 4 months of age. No side effects were seen after vaccination. Specifically, administration of RIX4414 vaccine was not temporally associated with fever, diarrhea, or increase in liver transaminases. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion ranged from 50 to 88% after one dose and from 73 to 96% after two doses, depending on vaccine titer. After the first dose, on days 7-9 post vaccination, between 38 and 60% of the infants shed the vaccine virus, whereas after the second dose only 0 to 13% of the vaccinees shed the vaccine virus. It is concluded that RIX4414 strain HRV vaccine is virtually non-reactogenic and, at high titer, highly immunogenic in susceptible infants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Diarrhea / virology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Feces / virology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin A / immunology
  • Infant
  • Liver Function Tests
  • Male
  • Rotavirus Infections / immunology
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / adverse effects*
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / immunology*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / adverse effects
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology*


  • Immunoglobulin A
  • RIX4414 vaccine
  • Rotavirus Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated