Management of alcohol withdrawal delirium. An evidence-based practice guideline

Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jul 12;164(13):1405-12. doi: 10.1001/archinte.164.13.1405.


Background: Alcohol withdrawal delirium is the most serious manifestation of alcohol withdrawal. Evidence suggests that appropriate care improves mortality, but systematic reviews are unavailable.

Methods: Articles with original data on management of alcohol withdrawal delirium underwent structured review and meta-analysis.

Results: Meta-analysis of 9 prospective controlled trials demonstrated that sedative-hypnotic agents are more effective than neuroleptic agents in reducing duration of delirium and mortality, with a relative risk of death when using neuroleptic agents of 6.6. Statistically significant differences among various benzodiazepines and barbiturates were not found. No deaths were reported in 217 patients from trials using benzodiazepines or barbiturates.

Conclusions: Control of agitation should be achieved using parenteral rapid-acting sedative-hypnotic agents that are cross-tolerant with alcohol. Adequate doses should be used to maintain light somnolence for the duration of delirium. Coupled with comprehensive supportive medical care, this approach is highly effective in preventing morbidity and mortality.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium / drug therapy*
  • Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium / economics
  • Antipsychotic Agents / economics
  • Antipsychotic Agents / standards
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzodiazepines / economics
  • Benzodiazepines / standards
  • Benzodiazepines / therapeutic use
  • Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Costs and Cost Analysis
  • Disease Management
  • Evidence-Based Medicine / standards*
  • Humans
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Psychomotor Agitation / drug therapy
  • Psychomotor Agitation / economics


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Benzodiazepines