Growth factors in breast cancer: mitogenesis to transformation

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1992 Sep;43(1-3):69-78. doi: 10.1016/0960-0760(92)90189-p.


While endocrine steroid hormones have been known for many years to regulate normal and malignant mammary epithelium, recent studies have led to an appreciation of polypeptide growth factors as locally-acting autocrine and paracrine effectors. In the current article we summarize what is known about growth factor regulation and action in the normal mammary gland and about perturbations of the steroid-growth factor interplay as cancer progresses. A major theme is that oncogenic activation modulates both regulation of production and function of growth factors in the mammary gland.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Breast Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics
  • Cell Division / genetics
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic* / genetics
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Growth Substances / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Oncogenes


  • Growth Substances